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Niel Viljoen Predation Management Programme

Monitor farms to assess management tools in support of predation management training in South Africa. 

According to the 2018 report by Niël Viljoen and his assessment of monitor farms the past 11 years, the most important lesson learnt is that no single management strategy is fool-proof. The secret lies within a combination of management strategies and more importantly, the understanding that these strategies should be altered to prevent predators from adapting to one specific approach.

Another key factor is that each livestock producer must fully understand the biology and behaviour patterns of predators that are to be dealt with. The results of Viljoen’s evaluation show significant success and hope for farmers in managing livestock losses. During 2008 when the first monitor farms were established, losses of 2 311 were recorded and the most recent figures for 2018 were down to 828 animals. These results did come at a price as the number of predators that had to be eliminated increased from 242 in 2008 to 526 in 2018. As this surely does not mean that all predators need to be removed from nature, it is important to understand that if predation among livestock reaches a certain level, some unwanted predators will need to be eliminated. The black-backed jackal, mainly a scavenger, is responsible for 68% of losses (Fig. 22). The preferred prey base in this case is smaller types of lambs up to 30 kg. The caracal, a bigger predator that does not like to scavenge, will go for a bigger prey base, mostly heavier than 30 kg, like lambs that have already been weaned and fully grown ewes. Predation management aims to reduce livestock losses but comes at a cost.

Niel Viljoen Annual Report 2018 

Scientific Assessment : Livestock Predation and its management in South Africa

Historic first for predation management in South Africa!


A single document containing detailed and current insight and knowledge into the complex situation of predation management has been finalised and was launched at the Nelson Mandela University on 16 November 2018. 

In this historic first (nationally and globally), the Scientific Assessment for Livestock Predation and its Management in South Africa will form the basis for contemplating policy development. It will also strengthen Government’s resolve to develop evidence-based policy and to recognise that in many complex situations, such as where there is predation on livestock, there is no silver-bullet solution. The partnership of Government, industry, stakeholders and leading researchers emerged to resource and formulate the Scientific Assessment and shows a strong commitment to address the conflicts around livestock predation management. During this event, Prof. Graham Kerley of the Nelson Mandela University provided an overview of the assessment and felt confident that the document will contribute towards reducing conflict and sustaining both agricultural production and biodiversity. Sipiwo Makinana, who represented the wool industry, highlighted the plights of emerging livestock farmers on predation and acknowledged the outcome of the assessment that commercial and communal livestock farmers face similar predation challenges.

Guillau du Toit, chairman of the Predation Management Forum (PMF) welcomed the assessment. He referred to the chapter on policy and recommendations to Government as the most essential part of the study, as regulations and legislation, which impact the production practices of livestock and wildlife ranching producers, need an overhaul. He thanked Prof. Kerley and his team for the inclusivity of the process and the involvement of a magnitude of researchers, authors and reviewers. The implications of the findings for Government were welcomed by both the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA). Mr Joe Kgobokoe, representing DAFF, and Ms Mancotywa from DEA acknowledged the requirement of both a strategic national research programme to provide evidence for policy development, as well as closer cooperation between policy developers, livestock managers/farmers and researchers. This assesment is aimed at helping agricultural and conservation policymakers and managers to arrive at improved approaches for reducing livestock predation, while at the same time contributing to the conservation of our natural predators. The PMF would like to thank all the role players who helped to make the publication possible.


Click here for Scientific Assessment publication

Bestel nou sifdraad teen verlaagde prys

Die Kooperasie, Humansdorp  in samewerking met die Predasiebestuursforum (PMF) stel sifdraad teen verlaagde pryse beskikbaar !  Die Kooperasie sal 2.5% van die waarde van die bestellings wat ontvang en ten volle betaal is, ten bate van predasiebestuursopleiding skenk.  Promosie eindig aan die einde van September 2018. 

Kliente uit ander areas, waar Die Kooperasie nie handelstakke het nie, kan bestellings by Gerrit du Preez, 072 499 3135 of per epos This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

Kliek hier vir meer inligting.

Opgedateerde promosiemateriaal.



Predation Management Training

The Predation Management Forum (PMF) has taken the initiative to develop a framework of minimum standards in training of livestock producers and farm workers on principles of ethical- and best practices in predation management. This is implemented within the framework provided by the Sector Education and Training Authority for Agriculture (AgriSETA).  The National Wool Growers’ Association of SA (NWGA), as member of the PMF, is an accredited service provider with AgriSETA and a qualified predation management specialist providing training to producers within this framework under NWGA accreditation, who subsequently oversees quality standards of training.

Predation courses presented within this framework were developed by specialists and a consultant was contracted by NWGA to assist with the development of training materials that comply with AgriSETA requirements. Minimum standards/requirements set for training are contained in the appropriate Unit Standards that can be obtained from the website of the SA Qualifications Authority (SAQA).  The course content developed by NWGA and used for training is however, more comprehensive than required by these set standards.

The Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) has developed draft Norms and Standards for the management of damage-causing animals in South Africa, which will come into effect shortly. The draft norms and standards propose that a person who applies or uses certain methods in respect of damage-causing animals(generally those methods that are regulated by means of a permit), must be adequately trained. The issuing of permits for eg. hunting at night, are to be linked to required competency levels acquired through training.

DEA is in the process of collaborating with provincial conservation authorities and industry representatives to agree on the level of competency required (which is more comprehensive than SAQA approved standards) in order for permits to be issued. Subsequently, provincial conservation authorities will approve the trainers who are to provide training to professionals who will require a permit to provide their services at a fee. The Eastern Cape was the first province to adopt and implement this new approach in practice, which is most probably going to be rolled out nationally. Skilled and experienced predation specialists may however, qualify for recognition of their knowledge through a process referred to as “recognition of prior learning (RPL)” and the full training course will not necessarily be required to qualify for the issuing of a permit.

Accreditation with a SETA in order to provide training in respect of the management of damage-causing animals is currently not a legal requirement; therefore any person who wishes to provide the training, but is not accredited with a SETA, will not be excluded from being recognised by government as a training provider. However, such a person will be required to present his or her course/s at the same standard.

Any enquiries and comments may be directed to the PMF secretariat at 041 365 5030 (t), 041 365 5035 (f),, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


The Predation Management Forum (PMF) represents the National Woolgrowers’ Association of SA (NWGA), the Red Meat Producers’ Organisation (RPO), SA Mohair Growers’ Association (SAMGA) and Wildlife Ranching SA (WRSA)

The PMF supports the responsible management of damage causing animals and rejects the inhumane treatment of animals.

Best Practices for managing predators in South Africa was developed by the PMF in support of ethical and humane methods to protect livestock and game against predators.

This declaration follows incidents of alleged brutality associated with trapping methods in the Western Cape.




Hierdie handleiding is 'n eenstopgids om produsente te help om die roofdierprobleem op hul plase asook die beste metode om dit te bestuur, binne die raamwerk van provinsiale- en nasionale omgewing, te identifiseer. Die oplossing is om 'n verskeidenheid metodes beskibaar te hê - 'n gereedskapkis van bestuurstoerusting. Die gids is nou beskikbaar by lidorganisasies van die Predation Management Forum (PMF), naamlik die Nasionale Wolkwekersvereniging van SA (NWKV), Rooivleisprodusente organisasie (RPO), Suid-Afrikaanse Sybokhaarkwekersvereniging (SAMGA) en Wilbedryf SA (WRSA).  Afrikaanse Gids



This manual is a one-stop guide to help producers identify the problem of predators on their farms, as well as the best method to manage human-wildlife conflict, within the framework of provincial and national legislation.  The solution is to have a variety of methods available - a toolbox of management tools.  The guide is now available from all the member organisations of the Predation Management forum (PMF), namely the National Woolgrowers' Association of SA (NWGA), Red Meat Producers' Organisation (RPO), SA Mohair Growers' Association (SAMGA) and Wildlife Ranching SA (WRSA).  English Manual.